Africa Defense Forum
ADF is a professional military magazine published quarterly by U.S. Africa Command to provide an international forum for African security professionals. ADF covers topics such as counter terrorism strategies, security and defense operations, transnational crime, and all other issues affecting peace, stability, and good governance on the African continent.
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The Sultan of Damagaram

ADF STAFF The Sultanate of Damagaram was never one of Africa’s biggest empires. In what is now Niger, at its most expansive it was about 70,000 square kilometers — about the same size as modern-day Sierra Leone.  But as a commercial…

The Kingdom of Axum

ADF STAFF The Kingdom of Axum, also known as Aksum, was the first to do many things in Sub-Saharan Africa. It was the first kingdom to mint its own coins. It created its own written language, called Ge’ez, which still is in use in…

The King and the Lice Test

ADF STAFF The storyteller historians of the Kingdom of Benin say that in about the year 1200, Evian, the kingdom’s aging administrator, tried to pass his title on to his son. But the administrator was not of royal blood, so the rule of…

Tanzania’s ‘Black Mamba’

ADF STAFF In 1978 during the war between Tanzania and Uganda, Tanzanian Brig. Gen. John Walden got on his army’s radio system to discuss the capabilities of the Cuban, Israeli, American and Mozambican Soldiers serving alongside his…

A Journey to the Land of Punt

The pharaohs of ancient Egypt were fascinated by a distant place known as the Land of Punt, or simply Punt. It was regarded as a land of plenty, with rich resources. Some called it Ta Netjer — God’s Land. But it was more than a trading…

The Mutapa Empire

ADF STAFF The kingdom of Zimbabwe fell into decline in the early 15th century. Some historians say the region was starving. Others say that the kingdom’s warrior prince, Nyatsimba Mutota, left the landlocked region in search of salt, a…